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Douglas MacArthur

Date of birth: January 26, 1880
Date of death: April 5, 1964
Burial location: Norfolk, Virginia
Place of Birth: Arkansas, Little Rock
Home of record: Milwaukee Wisconsin

Douglas MacArthur graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, Class of 1903. His father Arthur MacArthur earned the Medal of Honor in the Civil War, and they are one of only TWO father and sons to receive the Medal of Honor. MacArthur was recommended for the Medal of Honor by General Leonard Wood, a Medal of Honor recipient himself, for a daring act of reconnaissance alone in enemy territory during the Vera Cruz (1914) action. The award was denied because MacArthur's actions, while authorized at the highest levels in Washington, D.C., had been conducted without the knowledge of the local commander, Frederick Funston. MacArthur was again recommended for the Medal of Honor during World War I, but the award was downgraded to the Distinguished Service Cross. The young MacArthur also earned SIX Silver Stars in the First World War. From November 21, 1930 until October 1, 1935, he served as the 13th Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army.

AWARDS AND CITATIONS

Medal of Honor

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Awarded for actions during the World War II

The President of the United States of America, in the name of Congress, takes pleasure in presenting the Medal of Honor to General of the Armies Douglas MacArthur (ASN: 0-57), United States Army, for conspicuous leadership in preparing the Philippine Islands to resist conquest, for gallantry and intrepidity above and beyond the call of duty in action against invading Japanese forces, and for the heroic conduct of defensive and offensive operations on the Bataan Peninsula. General MacArthur mobilized, trained, and led an army which has received world acclaim for its gallant defense against a tremendous superiority of enemy forces in men and arms. His utter disregard of personal danger under heavy fire and aerial bombardment, his calm judgment in each crisis, inspired his troops, galvanized the spirit of resistance of the Filipino people, and confirmed the faith of the American people in their Armed Forces.

General Orders: War Department, General Orders No. 16 (April 1, 1942)

Action Date: 1942

Service: Army

Rank: General of the Armies

Division: U.S. Army Forces in the Far East

Distinguished Service Cross

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Awarded for actions during the World War I

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Service Cross to Brigadier General (Corps of Engineers) Douglas MacArthur (ASN: 0-57), United States Army, for extraordinary heroism in action while serving as Chief of Staff, 42d Division, A.E.F., in the Salient-du-Feys, France, 9 March 1918. When Company D, 168th Infantry, was under severe attack in the salient du Feys, France, General MacArthur voluntarily joined it, upon finding that he could do so without interfering with his normal duties, and by his coolness and conspicuous courage aided materially in its success.

General Orders: War Department, General Orders No. 27 (1919)

Action Date: March 9, 1918

Service: Army

Rank: Brigadier General

Company: Chief of Staff

Division: 42d Division, American Expeditionary Forces

Distinguished Service Cross

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Awarded for actions during the World War I

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting a Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster in lieu of a Second Award of the Distinguished Service Cross to Brigadier General (Corps of Engineers) Douglas MacArthur (ASN: 0-57), United States Army, for extraordinary heroism in action while serving as Chief of Staff, 42d Division, A.E.F., near Cote-de-Chatillon, France, October 14 - 16, 1918: As brigade commander General MacArthur personally led his men and by the skillful maneuvering of his brigade made possible the capture of Hills 288, 242, and the Cote-de-Chatillon, France, 14 - 16 October 1918. He displayed indomitable resolution and great courage in rallying broken lines and in reforming attacks, thereby making victory possible. On a field where courage was the rule, his courage was the dominant feature.

General Orders: War Department, General Orders No. 27 (1919)

Action Date: October 14 - 16, 1918

Service: Army

Rank: Brigadier General

Company: Chief of Staff

Division: 42d Division, American Expeditionary Forces

Distinguished Service Cross

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Awarded for actions during the World War II

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting a Second Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster in lieu of a Third Award of the Distinguished Service Cross to General of the Army Douglas Macarthur (ASN: 0-57), United States Army, for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an armed enemy, in action against enemy forces on 26 January 1945, while visiting the 25th Division in combat at San Manuel, Luzon, Philippine Islands. On that date, General MacArthur advanced within 75 yards of the enemy lines to a point where two men had just been killed and several wounded by Japanese fire and which was still under heavy attack by enemy small arms, mortar, and cannon. Hidden enemy machine gunners and riflemen were opposing the advance with deliberately aimed cross-fire which intermittently covered the area. General MacArthur's example in the face of enemy fire, was a source of inspiration to the men of the 25th Division and was in keeping with the highest traditions of the military forces of the United States.

General Orders: War Department, General Orders No. 46 (May 23, 1946)

Action Date: January 26, 1945

Service: Army

Rank: General of the Army

Army Distinguished Service Medal

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Awarded for actions during the World War I

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Army Distinguished Service Medal to Brigadier General Douglas MacArthur (ASN: 0-57), United States Army, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services to the Government of the United States, in a duty of great responsibility during World War I. General MacArthur served with credit as Chief of Staff of the 42d Division in the operations at Chalons and at the Chateau-Thierry salient. In command of the 84th Infantry Brigade, he showed himself to be a brilliant commander of skill and judgment. Later he served with distinction as Commanding General of the 42d Division.

General Orders: War Department, General Orders No. 59 (1919)

Action Date: World War I

Service: Army

Rank: Brigadier General

Company: Commanding General

Division: 42d Division

Army Distinguished Service Medal

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Awarded for actions during the Peace Time Awards

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting a Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster in lieu of a Second Award of the Army Distinguished Service Medal to General Douglas MacArthur (ASN: 0-57), United States Army, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services to the Government of the United States, in a duty of great responsibility. As Chief of Staff of the Army of the United States from 21 November 1930 to 1 October 1935, General MacArthur performed his many important and exacting duties with signal success. He devised and developed the Four-Army organization of our land forces; he conceived and established the GHQ Air Force, thus immeasurably increasing the effectiveness of our air defenses; he initiated a comprehensive program of modernization in the Army's tactics, equipment, training, and organization. In addition, the professional counsel and assistance he continuously rendered to the President, to the Secretary of War, and to the Congress were distinguished by such logic, vision, and accuracy as to contribute markedly to the formulation of sound defense policies and the enactment of progressive laws for promoting the Nation's security.

General Orders: War Department, General Orders No. 7 (1935)

Action Date: November 21, 1930 - October 1, 1935

Service: Army

Rank: General

Company: Chief of Staff

Army Distinguished Service Medal

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Awarded for actions during the World War II

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting a Second Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster in lieu of a Third Award of the Army Distinguished Service Medal to General Douglas MacArthur (ASN: 0-57), United States Army, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services to the Government of the United States, in a duty of great responsibility as Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific since March 1942. Under extremely difficult conditions of terrain, climate and limited forces and material he expelled the enemy from eastern New Guinea, secured lodgments on the Island of New Britain and gave strategic direction to coordinated operations resulting in the conquest of the New Georgia Group and the establishment of the United States Army and Navy forces on Bougainville Island. He has inflicted heavy losses on the enemy and established his forces in positions highly favorable for the construction of offensive operations.

General Orders: War Department, General Orders No. 10 (1944)

Action Date: March 1942 - January 25, 1944

Service: Army

Rank: General

Army Distinguished Service Medal

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Awarded for actions during the World War II

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting a Third Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster in lieu of a Fourth Award of the Army Distinguished Service Medal to General of the Army Douglas MacArthur (ASN: 0-57), United States Army, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services to the Government of the United States, in a duty of great responsibility, during the period 20 October 1944 to 4 July 1945. As Supreme Commander of Allied Air, Ground and Sea Forces in the Southwest Pacific, General of the Army Douglas MacArthur planned and personally directed the campaigns which resulted in the liberation of the Philippine Islands. Strongly entrenched and superior enemy forces were overwhelmed and completely destroyed in a series of decisive operations and exploiting U.S. Air and Sea superiority, coupled with the resolute and courageous fighting of the Ground Forces. The immediate result of the campaign was control of the China sea, the isolation of Japanese Forces in Burma, Malaysia and Indo-China and the termination of coastwise traffic supporting the Japanese Armies in Central and South China. The liberation of the Philippines began with the landings on Leyte on 20 October in which complete strategic surprise was achieved. After bitter fighting under most difficult conditions of weather and terrain, General MacArthur destroyed the Japanese forces which included the noted 1st Division of the Kvantung Army. Again surprising the enemy, General MacArthur moved his forces boldly up the Western Coast of the main Philippine Island and effected a landing on the shores of Lingayen Gulf on 9 January 1945. The flawless execution of this hazardous amphibious approach and landing so disorganized the enemy that in a series of deep thrusts Manila was liberated on 25 February. The fortress of Corregidor fell soon afterward in a brilliantly conceived and directed combined land, sea and air operation. By the end of June only isolated groups of enemy remained in Luzon. While the United States SIXTH Army was so engaged, EIGHTH Army units cleared the enemy from the Southern Islands in a series of amphibious operations. By 4 July organized resistance had terminated, completing the liberation of the Philippine Islands and the 17,000,000 inhabitants from Japanese domination. More than 300,000 dead and 7,000 prisoners were lost by the enemy, our casualties in killed, wounded and missing totaling 60, 628. Seventeen of our divisions had opposed and defeated twenty-three enemy divisions. The air, ground, and naval forces worked in complete unison to inflict this crushing disaster on the Japanese Army.

General Orders: Department of the Army, General Orders No. 27 (April 19, 1948)

Action Date: October 20, 1944 - July 4, 1945

Service: Army

Rank: General of the Army

Army Distinguished Service Medal

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Awarded for actions during the Cold War

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting a Fourth Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster in lieu of a Fifth Award of the Army Distinguished Service Medal to General of the Army Douglas MacArthur (ASN: 0-57), United States Army, for distinguished service to the peoples of the United States and the Republic of Korea, and to the peoples of all free nations. Having been designated as the first field commander of United Nations armed forces, and directed, in the common interest, to repel an armed attack upon the Republic of Korea and to restore international peace and security in the area, he has given these forces conspicuously brilliant and courageous leadership and discerning judgment of the highest order. Having been compelled to commit his troops to combat under extremely adverse conditions and against heavy odds in order to gain the time so imperatively needed for the build-up of his forces for the counter-offensive, he has so inspired his command by his vision, his judgment, his indomitable will and his unshakeable faith, that is has set a shining example of gallantry and tenacity in defense and of audacity in attack matched by but few operations in military history. His conduct has been in accord with the highest traditions of the military service of the United States, and is deserving of the enduring gratitude of the freedom-loving peoples of the world.

General Orders: Department of the Army, General Orders No. 39 (1950)

Action Date: Korean War

Service: Army

Rank: General of the Army

Navy Distinguished Service Medal

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Awarded for actions during the Cold War

The President of the United States of America takes pleasure in presenting the Navy Distinguished Service Medal to General Douglas MacArthur (ASN: 0-57), United States Army, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished service in a position of great responsibility to the Government of the United States in a position of great responsibility in the Southwest Pacific Area from February to October 1944.

Action Date: February - October 1944

Service: Army

Rank: General

Silver Star

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Awarded for actions during the World War I

(Citation Needed) - SYNOPSIS: Colonel Douglas MacArthur (ASN: 0-57), United States Army, was awarded the Silver Star for extraordinary heroism and gallantry in action near Rechicourt, France, 0n 26 February 1918.

General Orders: Headquarters, 42d Division, General Orders No. 22 (March 29, 1919)

Action Date: February 26, 1918

Service: Army

Rank: Colonel

Silver Star

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Awarded for actions during the World War I

(Citation Needed) - SYNOPSIS: Colonel Douglas MacArthur (ASN: 0-57), United States Army, was awarded a Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster in lieu of a Second Award of the Silver Star for extraordinary heroism and gallantry in action in France, on 15 July 1918.

General Orders: Headquarters, 42d Division, General Orders No. 22 (March 29, 1919)

Action Date: July 15, 1918

Service: Army

Rank: Colonel

Silver Star

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Awarded for actions during the World War I

(Citation Needed) - SYNOPSIS: Colonel Douglas MacArthur (ASN: 0-57), United States Army, was awarded a Second Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster in lieu of a Third Award of the Silver Star for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action in France, during World War I.

General Orders: Headquarters, 42d Division, General Orders No. 22 (March 29, 1919)

Action Date: World War I

Service: Army

Rank: Colonel

Silver Star

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Awarded for actions during the World War I

(Citation Needed) - SYNOPSIS: Colonel Douglas MacArthur (ASN: 0-57), United States Army, was awarded a Third Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster in lieu of a Fourth Award of the Silver Star for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action in France on 29 July 1918.

General Orders: Headquarters, 42d Division, General Orders No. 22 (March 29, 1919)

Action Date: July 29, 1918

Service: Army

Rank: Colonel

Silver Star

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Awarded for actions during the World War I

(Citation Needed) - SYNOPSIS: Colonel Douglas MacArthur (ASN: 0-57), United States Army, was awarded a Fourth Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster in lieu of a Fifth Award of the Silver Star for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action in France on 12 September 1918.

General Orders: Headquarters, 42d Division, General Orders No. 22 (March 29, 1919)

Action Date: September 12, 1918

Service: Army

Rank: Colonel

Silver Star

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Awarded for actions during the World War I

(Citation Needed) - SYNOPSIS: Colonel Douglas MacArthur (ASN: 0-57), United States Army, was awarded a Silver Oak Leaf Cluster in lieu of a Sixth Award of the Silver Star for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action in France on 25 September 1918.

General Orders: Headquarters, 42d Division, General Orders No. 22 (March 29, 1919)

Action Date: September 25, 1918

Service: Army

Rank: Colonel

Silver Star

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Awarded for actions during the World War I

(Citation Needed) - SYNOPSIS: Brigadier General Douglas MacArthur (ASN: 0-57), United States Army, was awarded a Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster in addition to a Previously Awarded Silver Oak Leaf Cluster lieu of a Seventh Award of the Silver Star for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action in France on 7 October 1918.

General Orders: Headquarters, 42d Division, General Orders No. 22 (March 29, 1919)

Action Date: October 7, 1918

Service: Army

Rank: Brigadier General

Distinguished Flying Cross

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Awarded for actions during the Korean War

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 2, 1926, takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Flying Cross (Air Force Award) to General of the Army Douglas MacArthur (ASN: 0-57), United States Army, for heroism while participating in aerial flight as Commander-in-Chief, Far East, and Commander-in-Chief, United Nations Command, during the period 29 June to 20 October 1950. On 29 June General MacArthur made a flight to Suwon, Korea, during which his aircraft was subjected to effective interception by hostile air action. Another friendly aircraft in the area was attacked and destroyed by enemy air immediately prior to General MacArthur's landing, and the Suwon airstrip itself was bombed and strafed during the course of his visit. On 27 July he made a flight to Taegu, Korea, during which his aircraft was again subject to hostile air interception and at which time the ground situation in the immediate area was most precarious. On 29 September, General MacArthur made a flight to Kimpo, Korea, again under conditions presenting the threat of hostile air interception and while the Kimpo airfield itself was subject to hostile ground fire. On 20 October he made a flight to the Sukchon-Sunchon area of Korea in order to observe and supervise the para-drop of the 187th Airborne Regimental Combat Team. During this entire operation his aircraft was subject to attack by enemy aircraft known to be based at Sinuiju. These aerial flights in an unarmed aircraft were made by General MacArthur in furtherance of his mission as Commander of the United Nations forces in Korea. Each flight involved the risk of death or capture by the enemy. In General MacArthur's case this risk was multiplied a hundred-fold in view of his personal stature and his position as Commander-in-Chief. That General MacArthur unhesitatingly took part in these extraordinarily important and dangerous missions is a further demonstration of the unfaltering devotion to duty which characterizes his every action as a leader. His conduct in these instances has been an outstanding source of inspiration to the men he commands. Throughout the Korean campaign the strategic concepts underlying General MacArthur's command decisions have reflected a superb understanding of the most advantageous employment of air power and made possible the victory which is being achieved with minimum losses and unprecedented speed. By his heroism and extraordinary achievement, General Douglas MacArthur reflects the highest honor upon himself, the United Nations, and the Armed Forces of the United States.

General Orders: Headquarters, Far East Air Forces, General Orders No. 93 (October 20, 1950)

Action Date: June 29 - October 20, 1950

Service: Army

Rank: General of the Army